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Can autophagy cure viruses?

Can autophagy cure viruses?

Autophagy has been reported to produce some antiviral effects against Herpesviruses, including xenophagy, i.e., the direct degradation of viruses in autolysosomes [44], and viral antigen presentation on MHC class I and II [47,48], but other mechanisms could also be involved.

What diseases are caused by ER stress?

There is accumulating evidence implicating prolonged ER stress in the development and progression of many diseases, including neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, and cancer.

Is autophagy in the rough ER?

There is also little information on rough ER compared with smooth ER as a cargo of autophagy. Different pathways and different receptors may participate, again pointing to likely tissue-specific divergence of these mechanisms in vivo.

Does intermittent fasting trigger autophagy?

Remember that autophagy literally means “self-eating.” So, it makes sense that intermittent fasting and ketogenic diets are known to trigger autophagy. “Fasting is [the] most effective way to trigger autophagy,” explains Petre.

Why is the Golgi apparatus bad?

Mutations in proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus can be deleterious for the structure and function of this organelle, impeding membrane trafficking pathways through it (Fig. 2) and resulting in disease.

What diseases are associated with Golgi apparatus?

Structural and functional changes of the Golgi apparatus are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (28), Alzheimer’s disease (29), Parkinson’s disease (3), Huntington’s disease (30), Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (31) and multiple system atrophy (32).

What is non selective autophagy?

Depending on the cargo, autophagy can be selective or nonselective. In nonselective autophagy, bulk portions of the cytoplasm are sequestered by the phagophore for degradation to maintain the nutrient levels in cells. This type of autophagy is frequently observed upon low nutrient levels during starvation.

What happens if the endoplasmic reticulum stops working?

Without the RER the cell is not able to synthesis new plasma membrane proteins, lysosomal enzymes, proteines for the Golgi apparatus and proteins for extracellular secretion.