Which disease caused by Spiroplasma?
Which disease caused by Spiroplasma?
Spiroplasmas are helical mollicutes. So far, spiroplasmas are known to cause the stubborn disease in citrus plants and the brittle root disease in horseradish (Spiroplasma citri), stunt disease in corn plants, and a disease in periwinkle.
Is spiroplasma Gram positive or negative?
Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, low-GC, small Gram-positive bacteria of the internal contractile cytoskeleton, with helical morphology and motility.
Who discovered phytoplasma?
Phytoplasmas, a large group of plant-pathogenic, phloem-inhabiting bacteria were discovered by Japanese scientists in 1967. They are transmitted from plant to plant by phloem-feeding insect hosts and cause a variety of symptoms and considerable damage in more than 1,000 plant species.
What is not found in phytoplasma cell membrane?
Phytoplasmas are obligate intracellular parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant-to-plant transmission….
|Phyllody induced by phytoplasma infection on a coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)|
Does spiroplasma have a cell wall?
Spiroplasma is a unique bacterium without a cell wall, which possesses a definite helical shape and is motile. Despite the absence of a cell wall, it utilizes the cytoskeletal elements such as MreB and FtsZ, like cell-walled bacteria, for physiological processes such as cell elongation, cell division and motility.
Who is known as father of bacteria?
Louis Pasteur: Father of bacteriology.
What causes phytoplasma?
Phytoplasmas infect plants and insects. They are spread by insects through their feeding activities which inject the pathogen into the phloem of the plants. The pathogen causes a host of symptoms, most of which are all potentially damaging to plant health.
What is difference between mycoplasma and phytoplasma?
Some mycoplasmas are known for their capability of unique gliding motility. Phytoplasmas are obligatorily parasitic to plant phloem tissues and vectored by plant-sucking insects, often causing spectacular plant phenotypes like phyllody, virescence, witch’s broom, etc.
Do you think spiroplasma produces FtsZ?
Spiroplasmas possess the cytoskeletal proteins associated with rod-shape determination and cell division such as MreB, FtsZ, and FtsA.
What is an example of pathogenesis?
Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes.
What is the shape of Spiroplasma?
Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism, parasitic lifestyle, fried-egg colony morphology and small genome of other Mollicutes, but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike Mycoplasma. It has a spiral shape and moves in a corkscrew motion.
What is the function of rips in Spiroplasma?
Genome sequencing has found that a wide range of Spiroplasma, including cultivable gut commensals, encode a diverse array of RIPs whose function is unknown ( Ballinger and Perlman, 2019; Hamilton et al., 2016 ). RIP evolution appears be highly dynamic, and includes pseudogenized copies, as well as RIPs that are found on plasmids.
What is the impact of Spiroplasma on evolution?
Thus it should have a big impact on the fields of symbiosis, sex determination, and evolution. Beyond Drosophila, Spiroplasma of the apis, chrysopicola, citri, mirum, and poulsonii clades are found in many insects and arthropods, including bees, ants, beetles, and butterflies.
What is Spiroplasma poulsonii?
Many Spiroplasma strains are vertically-transmitted endosymbionts of Drosophila species, with a variety of host-altering mechanisms similar to Wolbachia. These strains are from the Spiroplasma poulsonii clade, and can have important effects on host fitness.