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How does endothelial damage cause atherosclerosis?

How does endothelial damage cause atherosclerosis?

Damage to the endothelium upsets the balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation and initiates a number of events/processes that promote or exacerbate atherosclerosis; these include increased endothelial permeability, platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and generation of cytokines.

How does endothelial dysfunction create plaque buildup?

While much about atherosclerosis is unknown, most medical researchers agree that it begins with damage to the endothelium, the arteries’ smooth interior surface. Damage to the layer of endothelial cells leads to the formation of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances and cells in the blood.

What happens when endothelial cells are damaged?

If the endothelium becomes damaged and the NO levels become imbalanced, cells that should remain in the blood can pass through blood vessels into the adjacent body tissue. Some of these proteins include C – reactive protein, which is produced by the liver and causes inflammation 18.

What increases the risk of endothelial damage?

Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and tobacco toxins are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Regional mechanical influences on endothelial cell biology also play an important part in the location and evolution of atherosclerotic plaque.

What do endothelial cells do?

The endothelium is a thin membrane that lines the inside of the heart and blood vessels. Endothelial cells release substances that control vascular relaxation and contraction as well as enzymes that control blood clotting, immune function and platelet (a colorless substance in the blood) adhesion.

What are consequences of age induced endothelial dysfunction?

Endothelial dysfunction in regional vasculatures results in cerebral hypoperfusion triggering cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery insufficiency, penile erectile dysfunction, and circulatory failures in other organs and tissues.

Does atherosclerosis cause vasodilation?

Key Words: atherosclerosis endothelium maintains the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, inhibition and stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis.

What happens to endothelial cells as we age?

Aging is also associated with a reduction in the regenerative capacity of the endothelium and endothelial senescence, which is characterized by an increased rate of endothelial cell apoptosis.

How do cardiovascular risk factors affect endothelial function?

Exposure of endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors and the resultant pathophysiological changes, i.e. endothelial activation and dysfunction, with progression to atherosclerosis if risk-factor exposure is sustained.

Is endothelial dysfunction an early marker of atherosclerosis?

Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction is an early marker for atherosclerosis and can be detected before structural changes to the vessel wall are apparent on angiography or ultrasound.

Does type 1 diabetes cause endothelial cell dysfunction?

The general consensus is that the occurrence of endothelial cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetes signifies a very high risk of micro- and macroangiopathy, and although the diabetic state predisposes to endothelial cell dysfunction in this disease, it is not sufficient to cause it.

How does oxidative stress affect the vascular endothelium?

The vascular endothelium, which regulates the passage of macromolecules and circulating cells from blood to tissues, is a major target of oxidative stress, playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases and disorders.