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Which vertebrae have zygapophyseal joints?

Which vertebrae have zygapophyseal joints?

On each side of the vertebral arch of each lumbar vertebra there is an inferior and a superior articular process. The inferior (lower) articular processes of one vertebra form a zygapophyseal joint (facet joint) with the superior (upper) articular processes of the vertebra below it to connect the two vertebrae.

What are the zygapophyseal joints?

Zygapophyseal joints are the only synovial joints in the spine, with hyaline cartilage overlying subchondral bone, a synovial membrane and a joint capsule; they comprise the postero-lateral articulation between vertebral levels (Figure 1). The joint capsule and adjoining structures are richly innervated.

What is zygapophyseal joint pain?

Cervical and thoracic zygapophyseal joint arthropathy refers to degenerative changes in the facet joints (zygapophyseal joints, z-joints) of the spine which may result in facet-mediated head, neck, and back pain.

What is zygapophyseal joint capsule?

The facet joint capsule is an area of connective tissue that covers and closes the facet joint (which is also known as the zygapophysis or zygapophyseal joint) from top to bottom. This connective tissue creates a sort of bulky seam that holds the two bones forming the facet joint together.

What Innervates the zygapophyseal joint?

C2–C3 zygapophyseal joint is innervated by the third occipital nerve, which is the superficial medial branch of the dorsal ramus of C3.

How many joints are in zygapophyseal?

Also known as the zygapophyseal or apophyseal joint, is a synovial joint between the superior articular process of one vertebra and the inferior articular process of the vertebra directly above it. There are two facet joints in each spinal motion segment.

What is the function of Zygapophyseal joints?

The zygapophyseal joints are true synovial joints that allow for motion of the vertebral spine while limiting excessive motion.

What type of synovial joint is the Zygapophyseal facet joint?

The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae. There are two facet joints in each spinal motion segment and each facet joint is innervated by the recurrent meningeal nerves.

What type of synovial joint is the zygapophyseal facet joint?

What is the Zygapophyseal facet orientation in the lumbar region?

Facets joints have different orientations depending on the area: The facet joints in the lumbar region lie in the sagittal plane; the articulating facets are at right angles to the transverse plane and 45° to the frontal plane. The superior facets face medially, and the inferior facets face laterally.

What is zygapophyseal facet orientation?

What is zygapophyseal arthropathy?

Zygapophyseal joint (Z-joint) arthropathy is a common cause of neck and back pain and can be due to traumatic or degenerative changes. Apophyseal articulations are formed by the superior and inferior articular facets from adjacent vertebral levels, and they allow for spinal mobility. The joint capsule is richly innervated.

How do you stimulate the zygapophyseal joint?

Under fluoroscopic control, the zygapophyseal joints from C0/1 to C7/Th1 were stimulated by the injection of contrast medium and while electrical stimulation of the cervical zygapophyseal dorsal rami at segments C3 to C7 was performed during facet denervation.

What innervates the lumbar zygapophyseal joint (ZJ)?

The lumbar zygapophyseal joint (ZJ) is innervated by the medial branches of the dorsal rami emerging at the same segmental level, and the level above (Bogduk 1983 ).

What nerve innervates the c2-3 and C3 facet joints?

The C2-3 facet joint is innervated by the third occipital nerve and a separate articular branch of the posterior ramus of C3. The C3 medial branch nerve innervates the C3-4 facet joint. The remainder of the joints have a bisegmental innervation from the medial branch of the dorsal rami of the same level and the level above it. 8