Why are polymeric nanoparticles used in drug delivery?

Why are polymeric nanoparticles used in drug delivery?

Polymeric nanoparticles stand out as a key tool to improve drug bioavailability or specific delivery at the site of action. The versatility of polymers makes them potentially ideal for fulfilling the requirements of each particular drug-delivery system.

Which nanoparticles are used in drug delivery?

Nanoparticles used in drug delivery system

  • Chitosan. Chitosan exhibits muco-adhesive properties and can be used to act in the tight epithelial junctions.
  • Alginate.
  • Xanthan gum.
  • Cellulose.
  • Liposomes.
  • Polymeric micelles.
  • Dendrimers.
  • Inorganic nanoparticles.

What is the major advantages of polymer in polymeric nano particles?

Most important advantages offered by the polymeric nanoparticles include the following: (1) provide controlled release to the desired site, (2) provide stability to labile molecules (e.g., proteins), and (3) provide ability to modify surfaces with ligands for stealth and targeted drug delivery purposes [30].

What are polymeric micelles?

Polymeric micelles are nanoscopic core/shell structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers. Both the inherent and modifiable properties of polymeric micelles make them particularly well suited for drug delivery purposes. Relevant properties discussed include micellar association, morphology, size and stability.

What are ceramic nanoparticles used for?

Ceramic nanoparticles have been successfully used as drug delivery systems against a number of diseases, such as bacterial infections, glaucoma, etc., and most widely, against cancer.

How are nanoparticles made for drug delivery?

Common synthetic polymeric nanoparticles include polyacrylamide, polyacrylate, and chitosan. Drug molecules can be incorporated either during or after polymerization. Depending on the polymerization chemistry, the drug can be covalently bonded, encapsulated in a hydrophobic core, or conjugated electrostatically.

How Nanotechnology help in drug delivery systems?

Applying nanotechnology to drug delivery should achieve the following benefits: Improve the ability to deliver drugs that are poorly water soluble. Provide site-specific targeting to reduce drug accumulation within healthy tissue. Help retain the drug in the body long enough for effective treatment.

How do polymeric nanoparticles work?

Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are particles within the size range from 1 to 1000 nm and can be loaded with active compounds entrapped within or surface-adsorbed onto the polymeric core. The term “nanoparticle” stands for both nanocapsules and nanospheres, which are distinguished by the morphological structure.

How do you make polymeric nanoparticles?

However, there are various methods used for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles such as desolvation, dialysis, ionic gelation, nanoprecipitation, solvent evaporation, salting out, spray drying and supercritical fluid.

How do polymeric micelles release drugs?

2.2. Drug release from polymeric micelles can occur due to either drug diffusion from intact micelles or micelles disassembly (Fig. 4). In any case, to avoid an uncontrolled drug release at administration, micelles should have good thermodynamic as well as kinetic stability [33,80,81].

What are polymeric micelles used for?

Polymeric micelles are used in drug delivery because of their interesting characteristics, like biocompatibility, low toxicity, core–shell arrangement, micellar association, morphology, nano size, and relatively high stability.

How do hydrophobic biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles work?

Once accumulated at the target site, hydrophobic biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles can act as a local drug depot depending on the make-up of the carrier, providing a source for a continuous supply of encapsulated therapeutic compound (s) at the disease site, e.g., solid tumors.

Are nanoparticles better than microparticles as a drug delivery system?

Many studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles have a number of advantages over microparticles (>1 μm) as a drug delivery system ( Linhardt, 1989 ). Nanoparticles have another advantage over larger microparticles because they are better suited for intravenous delivery.

What is the role of the polymer membrane in nanoparticles?

If the nanoparticle is coated by polymer, the release is then controlled by diffusion of the drug from the polymeric membrane. Membrane coating acts as a drug release barrier; therefore, drug solubility and diffusion in or across the polymer membrane becomes a determining factor in drug release.

Can nanoparticles be used to deliver drugs to cancer patients?

Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Interestingly pharmaceutical sciences are using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs and up to recently did not realize that carrier systems themselves may impose risks to the patient.