What is meant by podocytes?

What is meant by podocytes?

Podocytes are highly specialized cells of the kidney glomerulus that wrap around capillaries and that neighbor cells of the Bowman’s capsule. The genetic or acquired impairment of podocytes may lead to foot process effacement (podocyte fusion or retraction), a morphological hallmark of proteinuric renal diseases.

How to podocytes work?

The podocytes have long foot processes called pedicels, for which the cells are named (podo- + -cyte). The pedicels wrap around the capillaries and leave slits between them. Blood is filtered through these slits, each known as a filtration slit or slit diaphragm or slit pore.

What is the metabolic function of mitochondria?

Function. The most prominent roles of mitochondria are to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration and to regulate cellular metabolism. The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs cycle.

What is the function of nephrin?

Nephrin is a key molecule in podocytes to maintain normal slit diaphragm structure. Nephin interacts with many other podocyte and slit diaphragm protein and also mediates important cell signaling pathways in podocytes. Loss of nephrin during the development leads to the congenital nephrotic syndrome in children.

What is the importance of the perirenal fat capsule?

What is the importance of the perirenal fat capsule that surrounds the kidney? Perinephric fat, also known as perirenal fat or the adipose capsule of the kidney, is a layer of fatty material that surrounds the kidneys. It plays an important role because it helps to cushion and protect the kidneys.

What type of cells are podocytes?

Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells that cover the outer surfaces of glomerular capillaries. Unique cell junctions, known as slit diaphragms, which feature nephrin and Neph family proteins in addition to components of adherens, tight, and gap junctions, connect adjacent podocyte foot processes.

What is the role of mitochondria in the metabolism of eukaryotic cells?

Mitochondria play a critical role in the generation of metabolic energy in eukaryotic cells. As reviewed in Chapter 2, they are responsible for most of the useful energy derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates and fatty acids, which is converted to ATP by the process of oxidative phosphorylation.

Does metabolism happen in the mitochondria?

Within the mitochondrion, the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, and oxidative metabolism occurs at the internal folded mitochondrial membranes (cristae).

Where is Nephrin made?

“Nephrin is specifically located at the slit diaphragm of glomerular podocytes”. Proc. Natl. Acad.

What is Mesangium in the kidney?

Mesangial cells are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus. Together with the mesangial matrix, they form the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle. The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus.

What is the function of the perirenal fat capsule that surrounds the kidney?

The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a layer of perirenal fat known as the adipose capsule of kidney. The adipose capsule is sometimes included in the structure of the renal capsule. It provides some protection from trauma and damage.

What are the functions of mitochondria in the human body?

Functions of Mitochondria. The most important function of mitochondria is to produce energy through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. It is also involved in the following process: Regulates the metabolic activity of the cell. Promotes the growth of new cells and cell multiplication. Helps in detoxifying ammonia in the liver cells.

How do mitochondria help in cell signaling and differentiation?

It stores calcium ions thus helping cell signaling. Free calcium regulates a series of chemical reactions in the cell and thus, mitochondria regulate cell signaling. Apart from these, mitochondria regulate cell differentiation and cell senescence or the cessation of the cell division.

How do mitochondria promote cell growth and multiplication?

Promote cell cell growth and multiplication Mitochondria are required for cell growth and multiplication. They form a network of tubules to enhance protein synthesis. Specifically a protein called cyclin is formed which acts as a check point protein.

Do mitochondria have a role in tumor biology?

The role of mitochondria in different stages of tumor biology has been reviewed recently ( 10, 18 – 20 ). This review will discuss how cells respond when mtDNA mutations accumulate, mito-nuclear cross talk falters, and mitochondria do not deliver important functional outputs.